Strength training (or resistance training) uses
a resistance to increase an individual’s ability to exert force. It
involves the use of weight machines, free weights, bands or tubing, or the
individual’s own body weight. This is not the same as Olympic lifting,
power lifting, or body building, which requires the use of ballistic movements
and maximum lifts and is not recommended for children.
The following are answers from the American Academy
of Pediatrics to common questions about strength training.
The risks of participating in an unsupervised
strength training program include injury to the discs and growth plates of the
spine and even occasionally death from weights landing on the chest wall. A
well-supervised program has a coach-to-student ratio of 1:10 or less and proper
certification of the instructor. Significant injuries are rare in
well-supervised programs, but can include stress fractures of the shoulder
(osteolysis) or spine (spondylolysis), muscle strains, disc herniation, and
tendinitis. Misuse of anabolic steroids to improve physique is another possible
|Strength training results in loss of flexibility.||Research shows that strength training does not decrease
flexibility and that incorporation of a stretching program has
resulted in improved flexibility.
|Strength training is dangerous to growth plates.||Strength training is not harmful to the growth plates when done
in supervised settings using low weight and high repetitions. In
fact, research shows that it is safer than playing soccer,
football, and basketball.
|Strength training will not result in an increase in strength
|Well-designed strength training programs of at least 8
weeks’ duration can increase strength by 30% to 50%.
However, in young athletes, these changes happen by changing how
the muscle works rather than increasing the muscle size.
Strength training improves muscle strength and
stamina. Regular participation in strength training improves cardiac (heart)
health, body composition, and bone mineral density, and decreases cholesterol
levels. It is particularly helpful for overweight (obese) youth because it
increases lean body mass and metabolic rate without the extra stress on the
body. In some sports (like swimming or tennis), strength training may prevent
common rotator cuff problems. Research also shows a possible reduction in knee
injuries in girls when strength training is combined with a plyometric (jumping)
Strength training is not recommended for people
with the following:
Uncontrolled high blood pressure
Prior history of childhood cancers
treated with chemotherapy
Children with complex congenital heart disease
should get an OK by a pediatric cardiologist before starting a strength training
The proper age is based on the following:
Maturity (if the child has reached
certain developmental milestones)
The type of sport the child wants to
A desire to participate
The discipline to train several times a
The ability to listen and follow
Most young athletes have these characteristics
and can maintain proper balance and postural control by around 7 or 8 years of
To get the most out of strength training,
Include aerobic training along with
Train 2 to 3 times a week for 20 to 30
Warm up and cool down for at least 10
Practice all lifts without weights to
make sure form and technique are correct. As techniques are mastered,
weights can be slowly added.
Work all major muscle groups including
the core. Joints should be moved through a full range of motion.
Do 2 to 3 sets of 8 to 15
Train for a minimum of 8 weeks.
Gradually increase weights by no more
than 10% per week.
To prevent injuries, keep the following in
Use proper techniques when lifting.
Adjust machines for height.
Always wear proper clothing and
closed-toe shoes with good traction.
Always weight train with proper
supervision and spotting.
Start each session with a 10- to
15-minute warm-up. Avoid rapid breathing (hyperventilation), bearing
down, or holding your breath while lifting.
No maximum 1 repetition, maximum
weights, or ballistic maneuvers should be performed before reaching
Stop lifting at once if pain is
There are many different strength training
certification programs in the United States. Some require only an open- book
test to become certified, while others require a college degree, CPR training,
written and practical examinations, and continuing education to maintain
certification. We recommend that, at a minimum, the program be certified through
the National Committee for Certifying Agencies.
The organizations with the most national
recognition are the National Strength and Conditioning Association (
(www.acefitness.org), and the American College of Sports Medicine (
Listing of resources does not imply an endorsement
by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). The AAP is not responsible for the
content of the resources mentioned in this publication. Web site addresses are
as current as possible, but may change at any time.